英國《衛報》:太空競賽重啟,中國會成為領跑者嗎?(附英文原文)

本文來源:財經十一人(微信id:caijingEleven)

本文譯自英國《衛報》

作者:Mary Dejevsky

譯者:秦欣玥

嫦娥四號在月球背面的著陸,宣告了中國成為太空競賽中的有力挑戰者,並很可能促使美國和俄羅斯重新對月球探索產生興趣。

英國《衛報》:太空競賽重啟,中國會成為領跑者嗎?(附英文原文)

China’s achievement in landing a spacecraft on the far side of the moon, announced by Beijing’s state media this morning, has ramifications that go far beyond the simple statement of this being a 「first」 for mankind. It puts China on the map of international space exploration on a par with the existing space powers of the United States and Russia – the European Union to a lesser extent – but also adds a new dimension. It is the first time a landing has been attempted on the far side of the moon, with the particular communications challenges this entails, and it has been a success.

今天上午中國官方宣布,嫦娥四號探測器在月球背面成功著陸,其影響遠遠不僅是人類太空史上的一次突破這麼簡單。

它將中國置於國際太空探索的版圖之中,和現有的太空強國美國和俄羅斯(如果標準再降低一點的話,歐盟也算一個)並駕齊驅,並且開啟了一個新的領域。

在月球背面降落需要克服特定的通訊問題,中國成功地做到了這一點,做到了人類太空器在月球背面的首次著陸。

The first response from the US space agency, Nasa, was generous, as scientists to scientists: what China had managed was a 「first for humanity and an impressive accomplishment」. The response in political and military quarters in Washington, as in Moscow, however, is likely to reflect trepidation. There is now a serious newcomer to be considered.

首先對此作出回應的是美國太空局(NASA),其風格是科學家對科學家式的,不吝讚美之辭,稱中國的成就是「令人欽佩的科學突破」。

然而,美國和俄羅斯的政治和軍事機構的回應,似乎反映出不安的情緒。

在太空競賽領域,他們迎來了一個實力強勁的新對手。

China was late into space, sending its first astronaut into orbit in 2003 – 40 years after the Soviet Union and the US were embarking on their space race. Now Beijing has done something neither of the other two space powers has done – that may well be because they had other priorities for their space programmes, such as manned flight, human survival in space and the fascination with distant planets, first of all Mars. After Neil Armstrong became the first human to walk on the moon – a US triumph that provided some consolation for the shock that a Russian, Yuri Gagarin, became the first man to go into space – there was a sense that the moon had been 「done」. Greater challenges awaited. Will that change now, and could the moon become a potentially contested territory?

中國進入太空領域較晚,2003年才第一次將太空人送入軌道,比美蘇開啟太空爭霸晚了40年,而現在,中國已經做到了這兩個國家都沒有做到過的事情。

當然,這在很大程度上是因為美俄目前的太空計劃中有其他的優先項目,像載人飛行、太空生存和對其他行星,尤其是火星的探索等等。

俄羅斯人尤里·加加林成為進入太空第一人給美國帶來了衝擊,尼爾·阿姆斯特朗首次登月則讓美國人得到了些許安慰。

從那以後,人們似乎就覺得對月球的探索已經「大功告成」,應該去迎接更大的挑戰了。

這種想法現在會不會發生變化?

月球會不會重新成為太空競賽的焦點?

At a popular level, space has not lost its power to fascinate. The proximity of the moon and the mystery of its far side guarantee that China’s latest mission will command global attention beyond the scientific space fraternity. It will enhance China’s international standing, and could well inspire an interest in China and space among young people, as the US-Russia space race once did.

公眾從來都沒有失去對太空探索的興趣。

中國這次行動就因為月球的近地性以及月球背面的神秘性,而贏得了全球大眾,而不僅僅是太空科學界的關注。

這次成功將提升中國的國際地位,並且可以充分地激發年輕人對中國和太空的興趣,正如美俄的太空競賽曾形成的影響一樣。

The mix of admiration and anxiety that accompanied early Soviet space successes helped prompt the government of the then UK prime minister Harold Wilson to encourage (and fund) Russian teaching in the country’s schools and universities – and is one reason why I, and other Britons of my generation, had the opportunity to study Russian. Today the challenge, the excitement, and to some the perceived threat comes from a rising China – and now not just on planet Earth.

蘇聯早期的太空成功讓西方國家既欽佩又焦慮,促使英國首相哈羅德·威爾遜鼓勵(並資助)了中小學及大學中的俄語教學。正因如此,我和我們這一代英國人才有機會學習俄語。

今天,崛起的中國所帶來的挑戰和興奮——以及一些人所感覺到的威脅——已經不再僅僅局限在地球上了。

An open question is how far China will be welcomed – or not – into the existing space 「club」. After the no-holds-barred space rivalry of the US and the Soviet Union that constituted a part of the cold war, the US and Russia have settled into a more collaborative relationship in space that has largely withstood the worst of diplomatic tensions. The US suspended its space shuttle programme in 2011, but it has continued to send astronauts into space using Russian rockets, and the International Space Station has remained in use as a shared venture. Diplomatic expulsions, accusations of election interference and terrestrial disputes most recently over Ukraine and Syria have not affected cooperation in pursuit of national scientific and security interests in space. Space has remained a sanctions-free zone.

有一個問題現在還沒有答案,那就是中國是否——或者能在多大程度上——得到現有的太空「俱樂部」的歡迎。

當年美蘇之間的太空競賽呈現出完全的敵對狀態,甚至構成了冷戰的一部分。

冷戰結束之後,美國和俄羅斯在太空中建立了一種更具協作性的關係,而且這種關係在兩國外交形勢最緊張的時期也基本經受住了考驗。

美國於2011年終止了太空飛機計劃,但它持續使用俄羅斯的火箭將太空人送入太空。國際空間站也仍作為共享資源使用。

最近,美俄兩國因為烏克蘭和敘利亞的干涉選舉問題和領土爭端問題而互相驅逐外交人員,但這並未影響國家間在太空科學和安全利益方面的合作。

太空仍然是一個不存在國際制裁的領域。

It has taken more than half a century for US-Russia space cooperation to reach this point of relative equanimity, but the arrival of China as a serious player – graphically illustrated by its latest success – has the potential to disturb this. Will Russia, for instance, see China, with its recent successes and innovations, as a future partner in space or a deadly rival? The US – through its long-Sinophobic Congress – seems already to have made up its mind. Not only is it increasingly treating China as an economic and military competitor, but President Donald Trump recently ordered the creation of a new Space Command for the US armed services, suggesting the direction of his thinking here, too.

美俄之間用了半個多世紀,才在太空中形成了較為和諧的合作關係,但中國這一強勁挑戰者——最近的這次月球背面著陸生動地展現了中國的實力——的出現卻有可能打破這一平衡。

例如,中國最近的成功和創新會讓俄羅斯怎麼看?是把中國視為未來的太空夥伴,還是致命的競爭對手?

在這個問題上,長期持「中國威脅論」觀點的美國國會,似乎已經為美國給出了答案。

美國越來越將中國視為經濟和軍事上的競爭對手,特朗普總統最近還下令為美國武裝部隊建立一個新的太空司令部,這也暗示了他在這個問題上的態度。

So far, China’s precise ambitions for its space programme remain unclear. Establishing itself as a space power is surely one – but is it as a space power, or the space power? The equipment it has now sent to the moon suggests that communications and new natural resources are priorities. How far will the US, in particular, be prepared to watch and wait while Beijing potentially races ahead in these sensitive areas? Stand by for the US and Russia to take a new interest in the moon.

到目前為止,中國在太空領域的準確目標仍不明朗——讓自己成為太空強國是一定的,但是是「之一」還是「唯一」?

中國這次送到月球的設備表明,其首要目標是解決通訊問題,並尋找新的自然資源。

看著中國在這樣敏感的領域的暗戰中領先,其他國家——特別是美國——準備袖手旁觀到什麼時候?

看著吧,美國和俄羅斯很可能會重新對月球產生興趣。

>衛報英文原文

  中國「嫦娥四號」登陸月球背面,神秘的月球背面到底有什麼?

英國《衛報》:太空競賽重啟,中國會成為領跑者嗎?(附英文原文)

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